Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia

The South Caucasus concert: Each playing its own tune

By Jos Boonstra (28/09/2015) Working Paper
Jagermesh/Flickr (CC BY SA 2.0)

The countries of the South Caucasus have very different interdependent relations with the European Union (EU), Russia, Turkey, the United States (US) and Iran. Tensions between the EU-US and Russia over Ukraine are further entrenching these interdependent relations and hampering development in the South Caucasus. How can Brussels increase its engagement in this important region in order to reduce Russian dominance and bolster security and democracy?

Mastering a Potemkin democracy: elections in Uzbekistan

By Marlène Laruelle (06/04/2015) Commentary

President Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan has been re-elected after scoring 90 per cent of votes at the Uzbek general elections held on 29 March 2015. Like all the previous polls, this was a carefully orchestrated, ‘no-surprises’ election. Since becoming the country’s first president in 1990, Karimov has mastered the art of creating a Façade democracy. Several cosmetic changes have been implemented in recent years, all designed to pretend to comply with international norms and standards, but in practice ridding the political system of all meaning. Meanwhile, a cloud hangs over the country’s economic prospects.

Reviewing the EU’s approach to Central Asia

By Jos Boonstra (25/02/2015) Policy Brief
European Parliament

The 2007 EU Strategy for Central Asia is currently being reviewed. The EU has been successful in bolstering relations with Central Asian governments, but the overall picture of the EU’s engagement is one of limited to no impact. The region has become more unstable; democracy is seen by the regimes as a threat to their survival; and human rights have been backsliding.

A broken region: evaluating EU policies in the South Caucasus

Jacob Surland/Flickr (CC BY-NC 2.0)

The South Caucasus is a broken region characterised by local tensions and conflicting influences of large regional actors – the European Union, Russia and Turkey. The EU remains highly attractive to South Caucasus societies but its technocratic and government-focused policies have failed with Armenia and Azerbaijan, while reform in Georgia remains fragile. Furthermore, the region remains volatile due to the high potential for domestic instability; inflammable protracted conflicts; and Russia’s heavy influence.

EU-Kyrgyzstan human rights diplomacy: good effort but weak follow-up

By Cono Giardullo (18/11/2014) Commentary

On 29-30 October, the 5th EU-Kyrgyzstan Civil Society Seminar (CSS) was held in Osh in south Kyrgyzstan. This year’s topic was the ‘Prevention of Torture’, which is one of the priorities of the EU’s human rights policy in Central Asia, and is particularly relevant in the case of Kyrgyzstan after the 2010 ethnic violence.

Rethinking relationships in Europe’s East

By Jos Boonstra (04/11/2014) Commentary
Andreas Marazis

EU neighbourhood policies have produced few results in the tumultuous South and have been derailed both by Russia’s assertiveness and by very uneven local commitment in the East. A thorough review of the EU’s approach should be a top priority of the new EU foreign policy chief, Federica Mogherini, and neighbourhood commissioner Johannes Hahn.

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