In the nineties, most South American countries seemed to have achieved political and economic stability. After the foreign debt crisis and, having made sacrifices on account of neo-liberal economic adjustments during the same decade, the region currently faces a new crisis of political and economic uncertainty.
Certain changes in South American countries occur as a result of the new international situation brought about by the 2001 September 11 attacks and the rise in oil prices.
The United States government waged a war against terrorism by invading Afghanistan and Iraq. In addition, China and India’s increasing demand for energy resources in order to maintain their economic dynamism, combined with the lack of stability in Central Asia and the growing instability in the Middle East, contributed to oil price volatility.